Cryocnite hole litertures

Local cryoconite hole

  • Arctic
    [Takeuchi et al. 2001]
  • Greenland
    [Nordenskjold 1875][Gajda 1958][Gerdel and Drouet 1960][Gribbon 1979]
  • Antarctic
    [Wharton et al. 1981]
  • Himalayas, Tibet
    [Takeuchi et al. 2000][Kohshima 1989]
  • Sea ice
    [Podgorny 1996]

Albedo effect

  • [Gajda 1958]

Thermo dynamics

  • [Podgorny 1996][MyIntyre 1984][Gribbon 1979][Takeuchi et al. 2000]

Living organisms in the holes

  • Snow algae
    [Gerdel and Drouet 1960]
  • Rotifer and Tardigrada
    [De Smet and Van Rompu 1994]

Meteorites in holes

  • [Maurete et al. 1987]


  • Adams, W.P. (1966): Ablation and run-off on the White Glacier, Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian_Arctic Archipelago. Axcel Heiberg Island Research Reports. Glaciology No.1 McGill University, Montreal.
  • Charlesworth, J.K. (1957): The Quaternary Era 1. Edward Arnold, London. 1700 pp.
  • De Smet, W. H. and Van Rompu, E. A., (1994): Rotifera and tardigrada from some cryoconite holes on a Spitsbergen (Svalbard) glacier. Belg. J. Zool., 124, 27-37.
  • Gajda, R. T. (1958): Cryoconite phenomena on the Greenland Ice cap in the Thule area. Canadian Geographer, 3(12), 35-44.
  • Gribbon, P.W.F. (1979): Cryoconite holes on Sermikavasak, West Greenland. J. Glaciol., 22, 177-181.
  • Gerdel, R.W. and Drouet, F., 1960: The cryoconite of the Thule Area, Greenland. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 79: 256-272.
  • Kohshima, S., 1989: Glaciological importance of micro-organisms in the surface mud-like materials and dirt layer particles of the Chongce Ice Cap and Gozha glacier, West Kunlun Mountain, Chaina. Bulletin of Glacier Research, 7, 59-66.
  • Maurete, M., Jehanno, C., Robin, E., and Hammer, C. (1987): Characteristics and mass distribution of extraterrestrial dust from the Greeenland ice cap. Nature, 328(20), 699-702.
  • McIntyre, N.F. (1984): Cryoconite hole thermodynamics. Can. J. Earth Sci., 21, 152-156.
  • Nordenskjold, N.E. (1875): Cryoconite found 1870, July 19th-25th, on the inland ice, east of Auleitsivik Fjord, Disco Bay, Greenland; Geol. Mag., Decade 2, 2, 157-162.
  • Nobles, L. H. (1960): Glaciological investigations, Nunatarssuaq ice ramp, north west Greenland. United States Army, Corps of Engineers, Snow, Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment, Research Report 66.
  • Olinger, C. T., Maurette, M., Walker, R. M., and Hohenberg, C. M. (1990): Neon measurements ofindividual Greenland sediment particles: proof of an extraterrestrial origin and comparison with EDX and morphological analyses. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 100, 77-93.
  • Podgorny, I. A. and Grenfell, T. C. (1996): Absorption of solar energy in a cryoconite hole. Geophysical Research Letters, 23(18), 2465-2468.
  • Steinbock, V. O. (1936): Uber Kryokonitlocher und ihre biologische Bedeutung. Zeitschrift fur Gletscherkunde, 24, 1-21.
  • Takeuchi, N., Kohshima, S., Yoshimura, Y., Seko, K. and Fujita, K. (2000): Characteristics of cryoconite holes on a Himalayan glacier, Yala Glacier Central Nepal. Bulletin of Glaciological Research, 17, 51-59.
  • Robin, E., Christophe, N., Bourot-Denise, M., and Jehanno, C. (1990): Crysalline micrometeorites from Greenland blue lakes: their chemical composition, mineralogy and possible origin. Earth and planetary science letters, 97, 162-176.
  • Wharton, R. A., McKay, C. P., Simmons, G. M., and Parker, B. C., 1985: Cryoconite holes on glaciers. BioScience, 35: 449-503.
  • Wharton, R. A., Vinyard, B. C., Parker, G. M., Simmons, G. M., Jr., and Seaburg, K. G., 1981: Algae in cryoconite holes on Canada Glacier in Southern Victorialand, Antarctica. Phycologia, 20: 208-211.

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