Glacial animals on Himalayan glaciers

The animal community on Himalayan glaciers are diverse. Insects (midge and collembola), coppepods, rotifers, tardiglarda, and other microanimals are living on the glaciers. It should be noted that the wingless glacial midges are first discoved on a Himalayan glacier and they are never seen on other glaciers. Following animals are collected on Yala Glacier in the Langtang Valley, Nepal . See also Snow algae on Himalyan glaciers.

Yala Glacier, Lantang region in Nepal., where many snow animals can be found.

Wingless glacial midges

Larva of the midge are moving in a meltwater pond

Snow flea (collembora) are found in snow area (upper part of the glacier).

A red colored glacial copepod (Copepoda Harpacticoida)


Coppepods (red) and midges (black, larva) in a melt water pond on the glacier.


  • Kohshima, S., 1984: A novel cold-tolerant insect found in a Himalayan glacier. Nature 310: 225-227.
  • Kohshima, S., 1987: Glacial biology and biotic communities. In Kawano, S., Connell, J. H., and Hidaka, T. (eds.), Evolution and Coadaptation in Biotic Communities. Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, 77-92.
  • Kikuchi, Y., 1994: Glaciella, a new genus of freshwater Canthocampyidae (Copepoda Harpacticoida) from a glacier in Nepal, Himalayas. Hydrobiologia, 192-193: 59-66.

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